Ecosystem @ Molecule + VitaDAO with product, design and dev background exploring decentralized science and longevity.


Energy + Nuclear Power (Fission + Fusion)

Fission vs Fusion Power

Disclaimer: I'm a physics noob, and just curious, getting started and sharing my thoughts and readings here

Energy is one of the most important factors that drive human progress and flourishing! Especially extremely clean and cheap energy would really benefit humanity and help us against climate change.

One related problem is that science and energy has become increasingly politicized, being pro or against nuclear becomes a political statement, without most people properly understanding energy, as well as nuclear energy in particular. Lets get into the science.

Nuclear fusion occurs when two atoms join together to form one larger atom. This process releases a large amount of energy. The sun is powered by nuclear fusion. Nuclear fission occurs when one atom splits into smaller atoms. This process also releases a large amount of energy. Nuclear fission is used to power nuclear reactors. The future potential lies in fusion achieving net energy gain, meaning the amount of usable energy produced by the fusion reaction exceeds the amount of energy needed to initiate the reaction.

Ultimately energy is the fundamental factor driving human progress and will continue to do so into the future. Finding ways to increase the efficiency of energy usage and transition to cleaner and cheaper energy sources is critical for progress. —

Nuclear Power by Wikipedia

“Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions to produce electricity. Nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear power plants. Nuclear decay processes are used in niche applications such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators in some space probes such as Voyager 2. Generating electricity from fusion power remains the focus of international research.

Civilian nuclear power supplied (..) a tenth of the sum of all global electricity generation, and was the second-largest low-carbon power source after hydroelectricity, which supplied 28% of global power demands in 2019. (..).

Nuclear power is the safest energy source. Coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydroelectricity each have caused more fatalities per unit of energy due to air pollution and accidents. Accidents in nuclear power plants include the Chernobyl explosion in the Soviet Union in 1986, the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in 2011, and the more contained Three Mile Island accident in the United States in 1979.

There is a debate about nuclear power. Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy, contend that nuclear power is a safe, sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions.”

Brief explainer: Nuclear Reactions, Radioactivity, Fission and Fusion

 

 

   

Papers

DeepMind: “Magnetic control of tokamak plasmas through deep reinforcement learning

 

Startups

Helion

“Helion uses “pulsed magnetic fusion” (not a tokamak as traditional), they use aluminum magnets to compress its fuel and then expand it to get electricity out directly. Extremely high temperatures are needed to create and maintain the delicate state of matter called plasma, where electrons are separated from nuclei, and where fusion can occur.

Kirtley compares Helion’s fusion machine to a diesel engine, while older technologies are more like a campfire. With a campfire, you stoke the fire to generate heat. In a diesel engine, you inject the fuel into a container, then compress and heat the fuel until it begins to burn. “And then you use the expansion of it to directly do useful work,” said Kirtley.

By taking this new fresh approach and some of the old physics, we can we can move forward and do it fast,” Kirtley said. “The systems end up being a lot smaller, a lot faster to iterate, and then that gets us to commercially useful electricity, which is solving the climate change problem, as soon as possible.”

Helion Energy is using aneutronic fusion, meaning “they don’t have a lot high energy neutrons present in their fusion reaction”

“An aneutronic approach, like Helion Energy is pursuing, could have potential benefits that other approaches do not, but could also have different downsides and challenges to achieving commercial fusion energy production”

 

Fission vs Fusion Power

 

 

Commonwealth Fusion Systems

 

More pessimistic fusion take: “Former fusion scientist on why we won’t have fusion power by 2040”